﻿ 基于相似性的形状偏好：来自假设检验任务中的证据 The Shape Bias Based on Similarity: The Evidence from Hypothesis Testing Task

Vol.05 No.11(2015), Article ID:16316,7 pages
10.12677/AP.2015.511081

The Shape Bias Based on Similarity: The Evidence from Hypothesis Testing Task

Lijuan Hu

Preschool Education College, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing

Received: Oct. 19th, 2015; accepted: Nov. 3rd, 2015; published: Nov. 11th, 2015

Copyright © 2015 by author and Hans Publishers Inc.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our research was to explore the shape bias of adults in hypothesis testing task. Geometrical figures were used in our study which contained three dimensions (shape, color and pattern). The testing stimuli could be classified into two groups (1S and 2S) according to their similarity with the testing objects. 1S shared one feature with the testing objects, while 2S shared two features with the testing objects. It was found that: 1) adults preferred 2S, suggesting that similarity plays an important role in the process of induction; 2) compared with color, adults showed shape bias based on similarity, indicating that shape was an critical clue for the induction of adults.

Keywords:Hypothesis Testing, Similarity, Shape Bias

1. 引言

Tek (2012) 的研究中，作者是通过设置与目标刺激颜色相同且形状相似的测试刺激来提高相似性，那么当测试刺激的颜色和形状都与目标刺激完全相同时，被试又会做出何种选择呢？在本研究中，目标刺激包含形状、颜色和图案三个维度，测试刺激共有6个，与目标刺激共享一个(低相似性)或者两个(高相似性)维度。我们假定在假设检验过程中，被试会优先选择与目标刺激形似度高的测试刺激，同时会优先考虑与目标刺激形状相同的测试刺激。

2. 实验

2.1. 实验方法

2.1.1. 被试

51名在校大学生作为有偿被试参加了本次实验，其中男生26名，女生25名，平均年龄为21.7 ± 1.502。他们均为右利手，视力正常或矫正后正常。所有被试均身心健康，无色盲、色弱症状。

2.1.2. 刺激材料与任务

2.1.3. 刺激呈现过程

(左边的图形为目标刺激，右边的图形为测试刺激)

Figure 1. The material used in experiment

Figure 2. The procedure of experiment

2.2. 实验结果与分析

2.2.1. 结果

2.2.2. 分析

3. 讨论

Tversky (1977) 的相对模型认为两个物体之间相似性是由他们之间异同点的权重决定的。该模型可以用这个公式表达：

(a) 低相似(1S)和高相似(2S)的选择比例(b) 形状、颜色和图案的选择比例

Figure 3. The percentage of the first choice

The Shape Bias Based on Similarity: The Evidence from Hypothesis Testing Task[J]. 心理学进展, 2015, 05(11): 626-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/AP.2015.511081

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