﻿ 基于SCS模型的小流域降雨径流估算及实例分析 Small Watershed Rainfall Runoff Estimation and Its Application Based on SCS Model

Journal of Water Resources Research
Vol.05 No.02(2016), Article ID:17441,5 pages
10.12677/JWRR.2016.52021

Small Watershed Rainfall Runoff Estimation and Its Application Based on SCS Model

Xingming Yang

Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu Sichuan

Received: Apr. 1st, 2016; accepted: Apr. 17th, 2016; published: Apr. 27th, 2016

ABSTRACT

How to estimate small watershed rainfall that can be collected is a technical problem which needs to be solved in rainwater harvesting and utilization currently. In the past, many experts and engineers usually used small-area field fixed-point observation test method and other methods in solving this problem. However, these methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Aiming at this problem, the US Soil Conservation Service proposed a new solution for small-area catchment runoff calculation—Rainfall SCS Method. The advantages of SCS method are simple calculation, few parameters, and simple observational data requirements; the value of surface runoff can be calculated under various precipitation conditions and preconditions using this method. The empirical results using this method show clear model principle, simple calculation, and accurate results. It is a kind of good method for small watershed runoff estimation.

Keywords:SCS Model, Small Watershed, Rainfall Runoff, Estimation

1. 引言

2. SCS模型原理简介

SCS方法的优点在于，计算简便易行，所需计算参数少，对观测数据的要求简单，能够分别计算各种不同前期条件和降水条件下的地表产流量值，因而不失为一种计算小面积集流的新方法 [4] [5] 。其模型实现的具体步骤如下：

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

S是一个空间变量，与土壤类型、土地利用及坡度等因素有关。引入参数CN (土壤最大蓄水能力)，建立CN与的关系式，即

(8)

(9)

A类，该类土壤具有较低潜在径流量。由沙土或砾石土组成，排水性能良好，在水分完全饱和情况下入渗速率和导水率较高。B类则主要由砂壤土构成，该类土壤有较强的渗透性，或者是一些在土壤剖面的一定深度的一层弱不透水层。C类则主要由透水性中等的砂壤土或轻壤土组成，也或者是由在土壤剖面的一定深度拥有一层不透水层的砂性土组成，该类土壤在水分完全饱和的情况下入渗速率和导水率也仍然较高。

D类则主要由透水性很弱的粘土或重粘土一类土壤组成，该类土壤在水分完全饱和的情况下有很低的渗透率和导水率。可查出降雨前集水区土壤在中等湿润状态下的不同土壤类型和土地利用方式下的CN 值。在利用曲线数值方法计算径流量时，要充分考虑前期土壤水分状况对径流的影响。但是量化确定这一数值十分困难，故而在实际模型应用时，需要对CN值按照各种影响要素进行修正，这样使计算更为客观真实和有效。实际计算时可依据CN值表(表1)，结合研究区实际情况确定 [6] 。

3. 基于SCS估算模型的降雨径流估算实证分析

Table 1. Different land use and CN value of soil type at moderate wet state

Table 2. Calculation and measured values of 5 field typical rainfall runoff

4. 结论

Small Watershed Rainfall Runoff Estimation and Its Application Based on SCS Model[J]. 水资源研究, 2016, 05(02): 162-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.12677/JWRR.2016.52021

1. 1. 裴源生, 赵勇, 张金萍, 等. 广义水资源高效利用理论与实践[J]. 水利学报, 2009 ,40(4): 442-448. PEI Yuansheng, ZHAO Yong, ZHANG Jinping, et al. Generalized theory and practice of the efficient use of water resources. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2009, 40(4): 442-448. (in Chinese)

2. 2. 吴普特, 冯浩. 中国雨水利用[M]. 郑州: 黄河水利出版社, 2009. WU Puter, FENG Hao. China rainwater utilization. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Conservancy Press, 2009. (in Chinese)

3. 3. 段喜明, 吴普特, 陈晓兵, 等. 三川河流域雨水资源化潜力分析与评价[J]. 西北农林科技大学学报: 自然科学版, 2006, 34(6): 146-150. DUAN Ximing, WU Puter, CHEN Xiaobing, et al. Analysis and evaluation of rainwater resources potential of Sanchuanhe Basin. Journal of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Sciences), 2006, 34(6): 146-150. (in Chinese)

4. 4. 余海龙, 吴普特, 冯浩, 等. 黄土高原小流域雨水利用环境效应评价的方法与指标体系[J]. 中国沙漠, 2005, 25(1): 50-54. YU Hailong, WU Puter, FENG Hao, et al.. Assessment method and index system of small watershed rainwater utilization en-vironmental effects of loess plateau. Journal of Chinese Desert, 2005, 25(1): 50-54. (in Chinese)

5. 5. 李勇, 王超, 朱亮, 等. 雨水集蓄利用的环境效应及研究展望[J]. 水土保持研究, 2002, 9(4): 18-21. LI Yong, WANG Chao, ZHU Liang, et al. Environmental effect and prospect of rainwater harvesting and utilization. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2002, 9(4): 18-21. (in Chinese)

6. 6. 李建彪. 初论构造-地表过程-气候耦合系统[J]. 地质科技情报, 2005, 24(3): 9-14. LI Jianbiao. Discuss on construction-surface processes-climate coupling system. Journal of Geological Science and Technology Information, 2005, 24(3): 9-14. (in Chinese)

7. 7. 邢永强, 李金荣, 窦明. 石羊河流域水资源过度开发利用的思考[J]. 河南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 2007, 35(2): 195- 198. XING Yongqiang, LI Jinrong and DOU Ming. Thinking over-exploitation of water resources in the Shiyang River Basin. Journal of Henan Normal University (Natural Science), 2007, 35(2): 195-198. (in Chinese)

8. 8. 任立良, 刘新仁, 郝振纯. 水文尺度若干问题研究述评[J]. 水科学进展, 1996, 7(增刊): 87-92. REN Liliang, LIU Xinren and HAO Zhenchun. Issues of scale in hydrology research review. Journal of Advances in Water Science, 1996, 7(Supplement): 87-92. (in Chinese)